Is Free Web Hosting Reliable? When Should You Try It Out?

Over the past few months, a number of free web hosting providers have mushroomed over the internet. Most of them offer Unlimited Free Space, the minimum being 100 MB or so. All of them claim 99% uptime and all the possible features available with a paid hosting account. This includes cPanel, PHP, Softaculous or Fantastico Auto Installer, MySQL and most of the other standard features which you would expect to get with a paid service provider. Some free providers are also offering SSH Access with their free hosting account.

So how do they make money to pay for their servers? What’s the quid pro quo for the free space? As the famous saying goes “There’s no such thing as free lunch”. Even the free hosting is not really free. Its just that you are paying a different price for it.

Popups and Advertisements

One of the free providers whom we tried out, had an annoying page refresh every 30 seconds. If you were on the control panel page, every 30 seconds the page would refresh and would go to a gambling website with several advertisement popups. Another provider claiming to have been in the free hosting business since 2005, served up 4 popup advertisements when we first logged in to his control panel. The cPanel was an outdated version (probably a hashed version) which had an archaic design and missing all the newer features.

To top it all, our main website page was being served up with some code injected into it. The code was of a hit counter and an ad popup. The popup would show up once a day for every unique visitor – unacceptable for a professional website. The code injection was quite scary and we were not fine with

Selling your data

Most of the free providers, keep a clause in their Terms of Service (TOS) to state that they will sell your data, however, some of them promise not to sell personal identifying data. This means that all your data maybe sold by them for marketing purposes, provided that they separate any identification marks from it. If you are seriously building a website for the the long term, you may not want to risk the possibility of your data being stolen or misused. After all, Intellectual Property Lawyers are expensive to hire.

Restriction on uses

One free hosting provider threatens to delete your account if your website is under construction for 2 weeks or more. Their website states that: “We hold right to delete inactive websites which remain in Under-construction for more than two weeks”. Other providers threaten to delete your account if you have used it as a “backup” and not “actually linked the files to your website”. What constitutes a backup is left open to your guesses, as no where in the TOS do they mention what “backup” means.

FTP Restrictions

A famous free hosting provider does not allow you to login more that 3 times in a day through FTP. So if you have an urgent update to make, you may have to probably wait for a day. Their website states that: “If you access your site too often your ip will be blocked!”. That restriction is not very practical if your website is for the long term.

Whom is it for

Free hosting is only suitable for a disposable website – one that is not going to be used in a production environment. Free hosting maybe an ideal option when you want to test out your design or go live with a web application in test mode. Free hosting also enables you to understand real world scenarios and may also be useful for training and research purposes. Depending on your real requirement and what you intend to do with the hosting space, you will cautiously choose free hosting over a paid account.

Get an Unlimited Hosting account for your professional website at HostingXtreme. Our web hosting prices provide value for money and are in competition with the free alternatives as well.

Longwood 5KM and 10KM 2014
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Image by Peter Mooney
This is a photograph from the Longwood GAA 10KM and 5KM Road Races and Fun Runs 2014 which were held in Longwood Village, Co. Meath, Ireland on Sunday 19th October 2014 at 11:00. This is the fifth year which Longwood GAA have hosted race events. This year’s event was an outstanding success with the number of participants doubling over last year’s final numbers. There were almost 400 participants in both events with 224 in the 10KM and 166 in the 5KM. In the first three previous years the club had organised a 5KM road race. The events were organised as fundraisers for both the adult and juvenille teams at Longwood GAA club. The event also provided a fundraising opportunity for the local St. Vincent de Paul charity. Overall the whole day was a great success with the hard work put in by the organising committee ensuring that participants enjoyed their race experience. Both routes were accurately measured, kilometer points clearly marked, junctions well stewarded, and electronic timing provided. The event provided many local runners, joggers, fun runners and walkers with a local event to support whilst at the same time providing runners preparing for events such as the Dublin marathon with an opportunity to race a short, fast, distance in the lead up to marathon day. The GAA club provided excellent stewarding and traffic management all around the course. The race had a professional feel to it and it is sure to grow next year given the very positive feedback from many of the participants today.

This is a photograph which is part of a larger set of photographs taken at the event. There were photographs taken at the start of the races and the finishes of both races in Longwood GAA. The full set is available at this link

Longwood is a small village in South East Co. Meath and is close to the town of Enfield with access to the M4 Motorway.

Timing and event management was provided by Precision Timing. Results are available on their website at with additional material available on their Facebook page ( See their promotional video on YouTube:

Overall Race Summary
Participants: There were about 400 participants over the two events.
Weather: The weather was very breezy but dry. The temperatures around 10C.
5KM Course: The 5KM started in Longwood village. Runners then took a left turn in the Village down St. Oliver’s Road. This straight section of road brings runners to a left turn onto a very well maintained boreen road for less than one kilometer. The race then emerges and joins with the 10KM at Stoneyford where the runners take a left and then another left before arriving back at the finish line in Longwood GAA club. Overall this is a very fast and flat 5KM with no hills to speak of.

10KM Course: The 10KM event begins in Longwood Village outside Stoney’s Pub ( and proceeds westward out of the village. There are some interesting points along this part of the course. At the 2KM point the runners will run under the double bridges – an aquaduct for the Royal Canal and a bridge carrying the Dublin Sligo Railway line. The race then enters county Kildare just before the 3km and after taking a right turn at the four-cross roads known locally as Lally’s Cross it returns to County Meath on top of the River Boyne Bridge (Ashfield Bridge) which forms the county boundary. The race follows a straight road for the next 2KM until runners encounter Blackshade bridge which is the toughest climb on the route. As a point of interest Blackshade bridge brings runners back over the Royal Canal and the Railway line. The race then crosses the River Boyne again at Stoneyford before taking a right which will bring runners on a testing two kilometer stretch with some short hills. The 10KM course then joins with the 5Km course for the final 1.5KM back to Longwood GAA club for the finish.

Location Map: Longwood GAA club (Race Finish and Race Head Quarters – Google StreetView)

Joining point of the two courses (Google Streetview

Some Useful Links

RESULTS 2014: (may require Facebook logon)
Longwood GAA Facebook: (may require Facebook logon)

Our photographs from Longwood 5KM 2013:
Our photographs from Longwood 5KM 2012:
Our photographs from Longwood 5KM 2011:
Our photographs from Longwood 5KM 2010:

Garmin GPS Trace for the 5KM Event in 2013:
Garmin GPS Trace for the 10KM Event in 2013:

Can I use these photographs directly from Flickr on my social media account(s)?

Yes – of course you can! Flickr provides several ways to share this and other photographs in this Flickr set. You can share to: email, Facebook, Pinterest, Twitter, Tumblr, LiveJournal, and WordPress and Blogger blog sites. Your mobile, tablet, or desktop device will also offer you several different options for sharing this photo page on your social media outlets.

We take these photographs as a hobby and as a contribution to the running community in Ireland. Our only "cost" is our request that if you are using these images: (1) on social media sites such as Facebook, Tumblr, Pinterest, Twitter,LinkedIn, Google+, etc or (2) other websites, blogs, web multimedia, commercial/promotional material that you must provide a link back to our Flickr page to attribute us.

This also extends the use of these images for Facebook profile pictures. In these cases please make a separate wall or blog post with a link to our Flickr page. If you do not know how this should be done for Facebook or other social media please email us and we will be happy to help suggest how to link to us.

I want to download these pictures to my computer or device?

You can download the photographic image here direct to your computer or device. This version is the low resolution web-quality image. How to download will vary slight from device to device and from browser to browser. However – look for a symbol with three dots ‘ooo’ or the link to ‘View/Download’ all sizes. When you click on either of these you will be presented with the option to download the image. Remember just doing a right-click and "save target as" will not work on Flickr.

I want get full resolution, print-quality, copies of these photographs?

If you just need these photographs for online usage then they can be used directly once you respect their Creative Commons license and provide a link back to our Flickr set if you use them. For offline usage and printing all of the photographs posted here on this Flickr set are available free, at no cost, at full image resolution.

Please email petermooney78 AT gmail DOT com with the links to the photographs you would like to obtain a full resolution copy of. We also ask race organisers, media, etc to ask for permission before use of our images for flyers, posters, etc. We reserve the right to refuse a request.

In summary please remember when requesting photographs from usIf you are using the photographs online all we ask is for you to provide a link back to our Flickr set or Flickr pages. You will find the link above clearly outlined in the description text which accompanies this photograph. Taking these photographs and preparing them for online posting does take a significant effort and time. We are not posting photographs to Flickr for commercial reasons. If you really like what we do please spread the link around your social media, send us an email, leave a comment beside the photographs, send us a Flickr email, etc. If you are using the photographs in newspapers or magazines we ask that you mention where the original photograph came from.

I would like to contribute something for your photograph(s)?
Many people offer payment for our photographs. As stated above we do not charge for these photographs. We take these photographs as our contribution to the running community in Ireland. If you feel that the photograph(s) you request are good enough that you would consider paying for their purchase from other photographic providers or in other circumstances we would suggest that you can provide a donation to any of the great charities in Ireland who do work for Cancer Care or Cancer Research in Ireland.

We use Creative Commons Licensing for these photographs
We use the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License for all our photographs here in this photograph set. What does this mean in reality?
The explaination is very simple.
Attribution– anyone using our photographs gives us an appropriate credit for it. This ensures that people aren’t taking our photographs and passing them off as their own. This usually just mean putting a link to our photographs somewhere on your website, blog, or Facebook where other people can see it.
ShareAlike – anyone can use these photographs, and make changes if they like, or incorporate them into a bigger project, but they must make those changes available back to the community under the same terms.

Creative Commons aims to encourage creative sharing. See some examples of Creative Commons photographs on Flickr:

I ran in the race – but my photograph doesn’t appear here in your Flickr set! What gives?

As mentioned above we take these photographs as a hobby and as a voluntary contribution to the running community in Ireland. Very often we have actually ran in the same race and then switched to photographer mode after we finished the race. Consequently, we feel that we have no obligations to capture a photograph of every participant in the race. However, we do try our very best to capture as many participants as possible. But this is sometimes not possible for a variety of reasons:

     ►You were hidden behind another participant as you passed our camera
     ►Weather or lighting conditions meant that we had some photographs with blurry content which we did not upload to our Flickr set
     ►There were too many people – some races attract thousands of participants and as amateur photographs we cannot hope to capture photographs of everyone
     ►We simply missed you – sorry about that – we did our best!

You can email us petermooney78 AT gmail DOT com to enquire if we have a photograph of you which didn’t make the final Flickr selection for the race. But we cannot promise that there will be photograph there. As alternatives we advise you to contact the race organisers to enquire if there were (1) other photographs taking photographs at the race event or if (2) there were professional commercial sports photographers taking photographs which might have some photographs of you available for purchase. You might find some links for further information above.

Don’t like your photograph here?
That’s OK! We understand!

If, for any reason, you are not happy or comfortable with your picture appearing here in this photoset on Flickr then please email us at petermooney78 AT gmail DOT com and we will remove it as soon as possible. We give careful consideration to each photograph before uploading.

I want to tell people about these great photographs!
Great! Thank you! The best link to spread the word around is probably

More Free Website Hosting Articles

Why should I choose free web hosting?

Have you been wondering whether to start a website with free web hosting or a paid one? Well yes, this often captures a naive web owner’s mind in making a choice amongst the two options available. Free web hosting of course offers you one primary benefit: it is simplest and it is completely free!

Free web hosting has undoubtedly become one of the most popular and widely used forms of web hosting in the industry. It offers free web space on its servers for the designing and hosting of the website without any fee. Though free web hosting do have limited web hosting features with many adverts plastered on your websites, but the advantages simple outgo all the limitations.

With free web hosting, you can build your own website absolutely free. This is particularly a good opportunity for beginners to learn more about how to design a website and create one for their personal or business use. Even experienced webmasters for that matter can make the most of this service to enhance their HTML skills, create websites as per their needs and experiment with the design of the websites.

You can also choose free web hosting simply because it also enables you to share your web contents with people with whom you share similar interests. Many voluntary or non profit-making websites with low start up capital generally opt for free web hosting services for circulating information about events and other activities. This also stands a great option for making a family website for sharing photos, videos and important events. And of course, creating a free website is very easy and time saving, with amazing features that you need not pay extra for features, which you do not really need for your website.

Web designing students can also look for free web hosting as an option to learn more about designing, developing, maintaining and monitoring a website on the Internet. Besides, many free web hosts also offer features similar to a paid hosting like cPanel, email, PHP, subdomains, MySQL, free templates, front page extensions, etc.

What’s more? These days many web hosting plans have become very cheap and are also accompanies with more web space, greater bandwidth and unlimited features, to survive in the touch competition.

In order to find out more on Transfer a Domain Name and similar website and webmaster related guides, check out Hosting Transfer.

Mini Banner mask on mannequin in window display of Paper Dress Boutique, Shoreditch London
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Image by craftivist collective
Photos by Robin Prime / Craftivist Collective

Fly solidarity’s flag for those suffering as a result of the world’s injustices. Craft your own banner, turn heads and influence change.

Imagine walking down the street and spotting a colourful cross-stitched banner out of the corner of your eye. You stop to look more closely and discover a startling fact about human rights abuses, or perhaps an encouraging quote urging you to be the change you want to see in the world.

One of the reasons why we love craftivism is that it is beautiful and non-threatening, engaging with people where they are, rather than shoving our message down their throats. That’s why our small, provocative Mini Protest Banners are so effective.

While stitching your banner, you will have the opportunity to reflect on important issues (our kits include ‘crafter-thought’ questions for you to reflect on), whether that’s the shameful practices that go on in sweatshops or the need to live in an environmentally sustainable way.

And by hanging your banner in public, you engage others in the fight for a fairer, more beautiful world in a provocative but thoughtful way, without them feeling threatened or preached at.

Hundreds of craftivists have used this project to great effect each September over the last three years, to support War on Want’s ‘Love Fashion, Hate Sweatshops’ campaign. But you can stitch a Mini Banner at any time, with any gentle protest message.

Just remember to avoid aggressive finger-pointing or blame – the idea is to make people think, and to encourage them that positive change can happen, and that they can be a part of it!

Stitch your banner on your own while you reflect on the issues at hand, or get together for a group stitch-in hosting an event where you can discuss your ideas with others, be encouraged by liked-minded people, and if you do it in public or a cafe hopefully you will also engage curious passers-by, who will wonder what you’re up to!

So… order your craftivism kit, pick up your scissors, and start shaping the future of our world into a more sustainable, beautiful place for all with us? Craft alone or with friends, family, or even set up a public stitch-in and bring the discussion to passersby and at other events. Tag us @craftivists on Instagram, Twitter and Pinterest or ‘Craftivist Collective’ on Facebook) so we can share your creations with others (unless you say otherwise) and we can all join the conversation. You can also do a guest blog for this website to share your crafter-thoughts and hopes like these craftivists have here in our series “My Craftivism”

Made ethically in the UK, each item you buy comes with 2 free stickers through the post.

What’s inside:

Cross stitch aida
Upcycled patterned cotton fabric with two eyelets
2 cable ties
Embroidery thread
Detailed instructions
Tips & message ideas
Crafter-thought questions to reflect on whilst stitching
Craftivist Collective label
Plus 2 free little gifts for you x
Use with courage and care.


I don’t own the musics used
Come And Play
Letter Of Intent
River Flow
Video Rating: / 5

Whether Free Web Hosting Is Worth It, Whether You Should Risk Free Hosting On Your Website

Some websites offer free web hosting, such as 000webhost. This is not truly free because they place advertisements on your content. This does not directly generate money for you, but it remunerates the company for the cost of the servers, and support.

A potential designer, or developer may select to use a free web hosting provider, for a whole host of reasons. If it only entails text or HTML, it is a really good idea. But almost no website involves only text or HTML, it would usually involve images or files other than mere text.

1. Efficacy of your data. You don’t want your data to be put to unintended uses. When you use a free web hosting service, you can’t have a great degree of confidence in the efficacy of your data on the free web hosting account. So, you may not exactly want to upload your secret drug formula worth millions of dollars on a free web hosting account. It’s not exactly very secure. The data you want to have on the free web hosting account should ideally be that which you don’t care much about, or don’t mind losing. Take a backup.

2. Terms of Service are not valid. Since the contract is without consideration, none of the terms of service are valid, and there is no valid contract between you and the provider. You can’t sue for implied warranties, or for loss of service, or for downtime. You don’t get an SLA guarantee or anything of the sort.

3. Not for critical data. You should not use free stuff for storing your critical data. If your website is important, spend money for a web host. Your visitors can very easily see that your web site is hosted on a free hosting provider. It does not set a good impression. You don’t want to put advertisements on your car, to get a discount on the car – do you ? It is not exactly the best image to give your clients, when you’re looking to target them to sell your products.

4. E-Commerce data. If your website has ecommerce related data, such as shopping carts or accepting credit cards, you cant use free web hosting because you need to have SSL certificates, and there are no web hosting providers that will give you a free SSL certificate. Uptime is critical for a provider seeking to sell things online, so you also don’t want to have a website where you sell something online, on a free web hosting provider – because you never know when it can go down. As the terms of service are not valid, you can’t sue the provider for loss of business if your website goes down. So, if your customers wanted to buy your services online and were unable to do so, you cant hold your free web hosting provider liable.

5. Knowing and analyzing web statistics. When you pay for web hosting, you can view statistics of viewing who visits your website, at what time of day they visit the website, and the demographic information. You can see details such as the type of web browsers they use, the age range and various other user demographic information. This can be crucial to target your audience and acquire more customers. For example, if you notice that all of your audience uses google chrome, you may want to hire someone to make a google chrome plugin app, to help your users better use your services.

Conclusion Using a free web hosting service is great. Its free. But, don’t use it for important things, like an ecommerce website.

We at Hosting Xtreme offer web hosting services for pay. We offer a free tld domain name such as a, .net or a .org domain name for your business with every web hosting account. We also offer design services for your business to gear you up for best using the internet to your advantage to maximize your revenue.

Summer holiday 2014
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Image by F.d.W.
Summer holiday 2014
In and around Berlin Germany


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

This article is about the capital of Germany. For other uses, see Berlin (disambiguation).


State of Germany
Clockwise: Charlottenburg Palace, Fernsehturm Berlin, Reichstag building, Berlin Cathedral, Alte Nationalgalerie, Potsdamer Platz and Brandenburg Gate.
Clockwise: Charlottenburg Palace, Fernsehturm Berlin, Reichstag building, Berlin Cathedral, Alte Nationalgalerie, Potsdamer Platz and Brandenburg Gate.

Flag of Berlin
Flag Coat of arms of Berlin
Coat of arms

Location within European Union and Germany
Location within European Union and Germany
Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°23′ECoordinates: 52°31′N 13°23′E



• Governing Mayor
Michael Müller (SPD)

• Governing parties

• Votes in Bundesrat
4 (of 69)


• City
891.85 km2 (344.35 sq mi)

34 m (112 ft)

Population (December 2013)[1]

• City

• Density
3,900/km2 (10,000/sq mi)


Time zone

• Summer (DST)

Postal code(s)

Area code(s)

ISO 3166 code

Vehicle registration

GDP/ Nominal
€109.2 billion (2013) [3]

NUTS Region


Berlin (/bərˈlɪn/; German pronunciation: [bɛɐ̯ˈliːn] ( listen)) is the capital of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.5 million people,[4] Berlin is Germany’s largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union.[5] Located in northeastern Germany on the River Spree, it is the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, which has about 4.5 million residents from over 180 nations.[6][7][8][9] Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one third of the city’s area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers and lakes.[10]

First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1417), the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) and the Third Reich (1933–1945).[11] Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world.[12] After World War II, the city was divided; East Berlin became the capital of East Germany while West Berlin became a de facto West German exclave, surrounded by the Berlin Wall (1961–1989).[13] Following German reunification in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany, hosting 158 foreign embassies.[14]

Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media, and science.[15][16][17][18] Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations, and convention venues.[19][20] Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination.[21] Significant industries also include IT, pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology, construction, and electronics.

Modern Berlin is home to renowned universities, orchestras, museums, entertainment venues, and is host to many sporting events.[22] Its urban setting has made it a sought-after location for international film productions.[23] The city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, nightlife, contemporary arts, and a high quality of living.[24] Over the last decade Berlin has seen the upcoming of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene.[25]

20th to 21st centuries[edit]

Street, Berlin (1913) by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
After 1910 Berlin had become a fertile ground for the German Expressionist movement. In fields such as architecture, painting and cinema new forms of artistic styles were invented. At the end of World War I in 1918, a republic was proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building. In 1920, the Greater Berlin Act incorporated dozens of suburban cities, villages, and estates around Berlin into an expanded city. The act increased the area of Berlin from 66 to 883 km2 (25 to 341 sq mi). The population almost doubled and Berlin had a population of around four million. During the Weimar era, Berlin underwent political unrest due to economic uncertainties, but also became a renowned center of the Roaring Twenties. The metropolis experienced its heyday as a major world capital and was known for its leadership roles in science, the humanities, city planning, film, higher education, government, and industries. Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during his years in Berlin, being awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921.

Berlin in ruins after World War II (Potsdamer Platz, 1945).
In 1933, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power. NSDAP rule effectively destroyed Berlin’s Jewish community, which had numbered 160,000, representing one-third of all Jews in the country. Berlin’s Jewish population fell to about 80,000 as a result of emigration between 1933 and 1939. After Kristallnacht in 1938, thousands of the city’s persecuted groups were imprisoned in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp or, starting in early 1943, were shipped to death camps, such as Auschwitz.[39] During World War II, large parts of Berlin were destroyed in the 1943–45 air raids and during the Battle of Berlin. Around 125,000 civilians were killed.[40] After the end of the war in Europe in 1945, Berlin received large numbers of refugees from the Eastern provinces. The victorious powers divided the city into four sectors, analogous to the occupation zones into which Germany was divided. The sectors of the Western Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom and France) formed West Berlin, while the Soviet sector formed East Berlin.[41]

The Berlin Wall in 1986, painted on the western side. People crossing the so-called "death strip" on the eastern side were at risk of being shot.
All four Allies shared administrative responsibilities for Berlin. However, in 1948, when the Western Allies extended the currency reform in the Western zones of Germany to the three western sectors of Berlin, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on the access routes to and from West Berlin, which lay entirely inside Soviet-controlled territory. The Berlin airlift, conducted by the three western Allies, overcame this blockade by supplying food and other supplies to the city from June 1948 to May 1949.[42] In 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany was founded in West Germany and eventually included all of the American, British, and French zones, excluding those three countries’ zones in Berlin, while the Marxist-Leninist German Democratic Republic was proclaimed in East Germany. West Berlin officially remained an occupied city, but it politically was aligned with the Federal Republic of Germany despite West Berlin’s geographic isolation. Airline service to West Berlin was granted only to American, British, and French airlines.

The fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989. On 3 October 1990, the German reunification process was formally finished.
The founding of the two German states increased Cold War tensions. West Berlin was surrounded by East German territory, and East Germany proclaimed the Eastern part as its capital, a move that was not recognized by the western powers. East Berlin included most of the historic center of the city. The West German government established itself in Bonn.[43] In 1961, East Germany began the building of the Berlin Wall between East and West Berlin, and events escalated to a tank standoff at Checkpoint Charlie. West Berlin was now de facto a part of West Germany with a unique legal status, while East Berlin was de facto a part of East Germany. John F. Kennedy gave his "Ich bin ein Berliner" – speech in 1963 underlining the US support for the Western part of the city. Berlin was completely divided. Although it was possible for Westerners to pass from one to the other side through strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners travel to West Berlin or West Germany prohibited. In 1971, a Four-Power agreement guaranteed access to and from West Berlin by car or train through East Germany.[44]

In 1989, with the end of the Cold War and pressure from the East German population, the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November and was subsequently mostly demolished. Today, the East Side Gallery preserves a large portion of the Wall. On 3 October 1990, the two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany, and Berlin again became the official German capital. In 1991, the German Parliament, the Bundestag, voted to move the seat of the (West) German capital from Bonn to Berlin, which was completed in 1999. Berlin’s 2001 administrative reform merged several districts. The number of boroughs was reduced from 23 to twelve. In 2006 the FIFA World Cup Final was held in Berlin.

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